Oneiromancy or dream interpretation was one type of divination performed by wu 巫. Hawkes suggests an equation of the word ling in the Chu dialect with the word wu. 'It is said in the [Yijing], "When one does not continuously maintain his virtue, some will impute it to him as a disgrace; (in the position indicated in the Hexagram.) (Wizards of the Coast), p. 30. 45; 230-231): Aspects of Chinese folk religion are sometimes associated with "shamanism". Yamata no Orochi is an evil dragon that has eight heads and eight tails. Paper (1995, p. 85) criticizes "the majority of scholars" who use one word shaman to translate many Chinese terms (wu 巫, xi 覡, yi 毉, xian 仙, and zhu 祝), and writes, "The general tendency to refer to all ecstatic religious functionaries as shamans blurs functional differences. (Hawkes 2011, pp. China [Source] She is the author of "Rethinking Religion" and has covered religion for The Guardian,, and other outlets. Nevertheless, it wouldn’t have been easy for anyone, much less a pirate’s widow, to control so many outlaws. ISBN 978-0786965649. He arranges right enormous vats of rice wine in a circle and leaves them out to tempt the dragon. The possessors of such powers were, if men, called xi (shamans), and, if women, wu (shamanesses). Some of Chinese history’s most infamous and bloody witch-hunts erupted in the Han Dynasty (221–207 BC). The following examples are categorized by the common specializations of wu-shamans: men and women possessed by spirits or gods, and consequently acting as seers and soothsayers, exorcists and physicians; invokers or conjurers bringing down gods at sacrifices, and performing other sacerdotal functions, occasionally indulging also in imprecation, and in sorcery with the help of spirits. Schafer wrote: In the opinion of the writer, the Chou ruling class was particularly hostile to women in government, and regarded the ancient fertility rites as impure. It contains a story about King Zhao of Chu (r. 515-489 BCE) reading in the Shujing that the sage ruler Shun "commissioned Chong and Li to cut the communication between heaven and earth". Confucius adds 不占而已矣, which has completely baffled his interpreters. Regardless of the circumstances, his death left Ching Shih in a precarious position. Those 'infirm or unsound' wang were non-descript individuals, evidently placed somewhat on a line with the wu; perhaps they were queer hags or beldams, deformed beings, idiotic or crazy, or nervously affected to a very high degree, whose strange demeanour was ascribed to possession. Old Persian maguš, Avestan mogu), meaning an "able one; specialist in ritual". [2], China was governed by a Ministry of Magic. While Halloween may not be widely celebrated in the East, Chinese folklore is still full of the uncanny and macabre. He married a 26-year-old Ching Shih in 1801, “who participated fully in her husband’s piracy,” writes Dian H. Murray in, Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810. Boileau notes the disparity of these sources. Follow us on social media to add even more wonder to your day. The match lasted three days, and it was widely held to have produced some of the finest Quidditch seen this century. Boileau (2002, pp. It drinks half the Vistula River to quench it's thirst. One day Bodhidharma addressed his disciples, asking them what they had attained. He said: 'Heaven has not (given us) rain in a long time. (Photo: Though the name under which we now know her, Ching Shih, simply means “Cheng’s widow,” the legacy she left behind far exceeded that of her husband’s. Tu Baikui 塗白奎 suggests that the wu oracle character "was composed of two pieces of jade and originally designated a tool of divination." elevating a piece of jade (the rain-compelling mineral) inside an enclosure, possibly a tent. The (ca. (Schafer 1951, p. 153). Puff should be number one on this list because he is the most well known dragons in song. Apparently typical of at least one variety of shamanism of the Chu area of the Yangzi River basin, the text exhibits a marked degree of eroticism in connection with shamanic invocations. The Jiu Ge may be read as the lyrical preservation of a shamanic dramatic performance. Just like touching your feet to the ground when you get out of bed.”, Lingzhao responded, “Neither difficult nor easy. Six years into their marriage, Cheng I died at the age of 42. The "licentiousness" of the ceremonies of such a state as Cheng (doubtless preserving the ancient Shang traditions and customs) was a byword among Confucian moralists. The belief that demonic possession caused disease and sickness is well documented in many cultures, including ancient China. Men and spirits became intermingled, with each household indiscriminately performing for itself the religious observances which had hitherto been conducted by the shamans. ", The character 巫 wu besides the meanings of "spirit medium, shaman, witch doctor" (etc.) Smaug, just the name, reminds me of the fearsome battles that dragon has fought. (Photo: There are further accounts of Ching Shih’s code that state that if a pirate took a captive as his wife, he was required to be faithful to her (although, others say that captains would have multiple wives. Yangshan held Miaoxin in such high regard he made her minister of secular affairs for his monastery. The dragon is also the first example of a fire-breathing dragon in literature.The dragon is awoken after a slave steals a jewel-encrusted cup from its layer, driving the dragon into a frenzy. Here are five women who played vital roles in the early history of Zen Buddhism in China. asked the duke. Concerning the historical origin of the wu, we may ask: were they a remnant of an earlier stage of the development of archaic Chinese civilization? Wu-shamans participated in court scandals and dynastic rivalries under Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141-87 BCE), particularly regarding the crime of wugu 巫蠱 (with gu "venom-based poison") "sorcery; casting harmful spells". “I imagine that given mounting pressure from the outside for their suppression and internal loss of cohesion, that she realized the time had come to give up.”. The layman stepped outside to see, and while he watched the eclipse, Lingzhao took his place on the sleeping mat and died. (the duke said): 'Well, then I want to expose to the sun a wu and what about that?' In the case of De Groot’s “old aunt” it is a “wu” who the family call upon to find the culprit. Follow us on Twitter to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. A Dark wizard obsessed with the supposed superiority of the magical population, his actions threatened the existence of the wizarding world and he was only prevented from causing terrible lasting damage when Dumbledore challenged and then beat him in a now-legendary duel. The spices and sulfur burn the dragon's stomach. ISBN ISBN 0-7869-0710-X. The duke then awoke, and called the witch of [Sangtian], who told him everything which he had dreamt. Commentators have attempted to explain why the wu merely interpreted the duke's dream but did not perform a healing ritual or exorcism, and why the duke waited until the prediction had failed before ordering the execution. When the physician arrived, he said, "Nothing can be done for this disease. We depend on ad revenue to craft and curate stories about the world’s hidden wonders.