[11] Basins thus held much more water than they do today. During the waning stages of the latest ice age, between 20,000 and 10,000 years ago, the Basin and Range Province was much cooler and wetter than it is today. Produced under a Cooperative Agreement for earth science education between the National Park Service's Geologic Resources Division and the American Geosciences Institute. And while Craters of the Moon National Monument in southern Idaho lies along the Columbia Plateau–Yellowstone hotspot track, recent basalt fissure eruptions and cinder cones are most likely due to Basin and Range continental rifting. season at the Sunset Crater National Monument is during the late summer months. For example, the western half of Lassen Volcanic National Park in northern California has composite volcanoes and high-silica lava domes characteristic of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, while cinder cones and basalt lava flows in the eastern part of the park are more diagnostic of continental rifting in the Basin and Range Province. But the upper part of the crust is relatively cold and breaks in a brittle fashion (like peanut brittle), making earthquakes. National Park Service sites in this region showcase block-fault mountains and volcanic features forming as the thick crust stretches and cracks apart, releasing magma from below. The basin and range topography develops over a few million years as fault lines move gradually, or more abruptly during tens of thousands of earthquakes. But sometimes the valley floors move downward much faster than these layers can fill them. The side of a volcano is a harsh environment for organisms. For example, Death Valley contained Lake Manly, some 80 miles long and 600 feet (180 meters) deep. The bulk of the eruptions at continental rift zones thus produce fluid, dark-colored lava (basalt) that spreads out as low-profile shield volcanoes, or erupts in fountains forming cinder cones. (. The long … (10), This region in Arizona is affected by the continental tropical (cT) air masses in the summer. The hiking trail below the summit skirts the substantial Bonito Lava Flow. The lower crust and underlying asthenosphere are so hot that they stretch in a ductile fashion (like silly putty), without producing earthquakes. Continental rifting causes valleys floors to drop down along fault lines in the Basin and Range Province. Molten rock (magma) thus melts off the decompressed mantle beneath the Basin and Range Province and Rio Grande Rift. The first is the park’s namesake, a 1000-foot-tall (305 m) cinder cone that erupted sometime around 1085 CE. [14] A visitor center is located near the park entrance, 15 miles (24 km) north of Flagstaff, Arizona, along U.S. Highway 89. Although Arizona may be perceived as an all desert-like climate, Sunset Crater National, According to the weatherbase, Arizona has a continental climate with dry warm summers. The wind is least often out of the south east (, Because Sunset Crater is situated at 39.3656' N it is very close to 40'. This latitudinal range is affected by the westerlies. (3), of the time). Sunset Crater Volcano is a fairly young volcano. However, this is a tough place for most species to survive given the extremely dry conditions and small amounts of vegetation. The area of the Forest in that place keep decreasing due to the road construction, lumbering, forest fires due to human.