The sperm whale has a unique look characterized by its block-shaped head and its distinct blowhole. The plan’s goal is to delist the species, with an interim goal of down-listing its status from "endangered" to "threatened.". When the phytoplankton dies, it sinks to the deep ocean and takes the atmospheric carbon with it. Verne portrays them as being savage hunters ("nothing but mouth and teeth"). (2004). In some mid-latitudes, sperm whales seem to generally migrate north and south depending on the seasons, moving toward the poles in the summer. Sperm whales have been tagged in an effort to learn more about foraging behavior, movement patterns, and core home ranges.  They feed on several species, notably the giant squid, but also the colossal squid, octopuses, and fish such as demersal rays, but their diet is mainly medium-sized squid.  A few famous instances include the well-documented sinking of the ships Essex and Ann Alexander by attackers estimated to weigh only one-fifth as much as the ships..  The 1598 specimen was near Berkhey. Ambergris, a solid waxy waste product sometimes present in its digestive system, is still highly valued as a fixative in perfumes, among other uses. Inadvertent vessel strikes can injure or kill sperm whales. The scientific genus name Physeter comes from the Greek physētēr (φυσητήρ), meaning "blowpipe, blowhole (of a whale)", or – as a pars pro toto – "whale".  Placoziphius, found in Europe, and Acrophyseter, from Peru, are dated to the late Miocene.  In a review of size variation in marine megafauna, McClain and colleagues noted that the largest male listed by the International Whaling Commission was recorded as 24 metres (79 ft) in 1933 and supported this as the largest; they noted, however, that sizes like these are rare and 95% of recorded sperm whales are below 15 metres (49 ft). Rope-mounted teeth are important cultural objects throughout the Pacific. A comprehensive reference database of dimensioned drawings documenting the standard measurements and sizes of the everyday objects and spaces that make up our world. The major actions recommended in the plan are: Learn more about the recovery plan for sperm whales. Although calves will eat solid food before one year of age, they continue to nurse for several years. Programmatic biological opinion on the Gulf of Mexico oil and Gas Program in federal waters.  In 1853, one sperm whale was reported at 62 feet (19 m) in length with a head measuring 20 feet (6.1 m). Pacific Islands, Frequently, other whales "assist" in the birth. , Capable of emitting sounds at a volume of 230 decibels—more than an airplane jet engine at takeoff—the sperm whale is the loudest animal in the world. Sperm whale migrations are not as predictable or well understood as migrations of most baleen whales. New England/Mid-Atlantic, At birth both sexes are about the same size, but mature males are typically 30% to 50% longer and three times as massive as females. Underwater noise pollution can interrupt the normal behavior of sperm whales, which rely on sound to communicate. The Sperm whale can hold its breath for about an hour. There are no ciliary muscles. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! The posterior wall of the frontal sac is covered with fluid–filled knobs, which are about 4–13 mm in diameter and separated by narrow grooves. The Recovery Plan for the sperm whale was published in December 2010. , Sperm whales can live 70 years or more.  The word cachalot came to English via French from Spanish or Portuguese cachalote, perhaps from Galician/Portuguese cachola, "big head". Males make a lot of slow clicks in breeding grounds (74% of the time), both near the surface and at depth, which suggests they are primarily mating signals. They have been known to dive as deeply as 10,500 feet (3,200 m), but average dives are about 4,000 feet (1,200 m) deep. Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick is based on a true story about a sperm whale that attacked and sank the whaleship Essex. We use a variety of innovative techniques to study, protect, and rescue these endangered whales. An incident was filmed from a long-line trawler: a killer whale pod was systematically taking fish caught on the trawler's long lines (as the lines were being pulled into the ship) when a male sperm whale appeared to repeatedly charge the killer whale pod in an attempt to drive them away; it was speculated by the film crew that the sperm whale was attempting to access the same fish.  However, more recent work has found many problems with this theory including the lack of anatomical structures for the actual heat exchange. A; Bannikov, Andrei Grigorevich; Hoffmann, Robert S, This page was last edited on 31 October 2020, at 01:24. Whales are able to hold their breath for extended periods of time. HABITAT
Sperm whales are found in many open oceans, both in tropical and cool waters. For some time researchers have been aware that pods of sperm whales may sleep for short periods, assuming a vertical position with their heads just below or at the surface. The sperm whale was listed as endangered throughout its range on June 2, 1970 under the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969. Its surface is covered with fluid-filled knobs. The killer whales employed a tail outward and tail-slapping defensive position against the bull sperm whale similar to that used by female sperm whales against attacking killer whales. The head constitutes one-third of the total body length and, it is estimated, greater than a third of the body weight.  Coastal areas with significant sperm whale populations include the Azores and Dominica. Updated daily. Tracking of diving whales suggests that groups engage in herding of prey, similar to bait balls created by other species, though the research needs to be confirmed by tracking the prey..  Tagging studies have shown that sperm whales hunt upside down at the bottom of their deep dives. Large sperm whales with all of the characteristics of present-day sperm whales lived 20 million years ago during the Early Miocene Epoch (23.8 million to 16.4 million years ago).  Although both sexes range through temperate and tropical oceans and seas, only adult males populate higher latitudes. Some strandings can serve as indicators of ocean health, giving insight into larger environmental issues that can have implications for human health and welfare. By contrast, the second largest toothed whale (Baird's beaked whale) measures 12.8 metres (42 ft) and weighs up to 14 tonnes (15 short tons). This recycling of air allows the whale to continuously generate clicks for as long as it is submerged.  Furthermore, The Taxonomy Committee of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world, officially uses Physeter macrocephalus when publishing their definitive list of marine mammal species. They are named after the waxy substance, spermaceti, found in their heads. POPULATION COUNT
It is estimated that there are about 200,000 sperm whales world-wide.  In comparison, human consumption of seafood is estimated to be 115 million tonnes (127 million short tons). , Herman Melville's fictional story Moby-Dick suggests that the "case" containing the spermaceti serves as a battering ram for use in fights between males. The skin just behind the head is often wrinkled. The research is used to inform management decisions and enhance recovery efforts for this endangered species.  Acrophyseter, from the late Miocene, also had teeth in both the upper and lower jaws as well as a short rostrum and an upward curving mandible (lower jaw). A 5 metres (16 ft) long jawbone is held in the British Natural History Museum and a 4.7 metres (15 ft) long jawbone is held in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In that year, however, Dutch zoologists Antonius M. Husson and Lipke Holthuis proposed that the correct name should be P. macrocephalus, the second name in the genus Physeter published by Linnaeus concurrently with P. catodon. Ambergris may help protect the sperm whale from the stings on the giant squid, its major food. Determining the number of sperm whales in each population—and whether a stock is increasing or decreasing over time—helps resource managers assess the success of enacted conservation measures. , When sperm whales socialize, they emit complex patterns of clicks called codas. Times News.  Today the tabua remains an important item in Fijian life. Photo: NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center/Brenda Rone.  In some taxonomic schemes the families Kogiidae and Physeteridae are combined as the superfamily Physeteroidea (see the separate entry on the sperm whale family).. The oversupply led in turn to the development of the European art of scrimshaw.. Sperm whales are considered an endangered species. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Some authors consider the killer whales "usually" behaviorally dominant over sperm whales but express that the two species are "fairly evenly matched", with the killer whales' greater aggression, more considerable biting force for their size and predatory prowess more than compensating for their smaller size.